If a movie touts itself as being “based on a true story,” watch out. It’s rare for any movie to actually tell a true story, as opposed to stories swirling about in a screenwriter’s head. Chances are, a “true story” movie only tells part of the real story, and could be as minuscule as “somebody with this name existed.” Then Hollywood builds total fiction based around that name, somehow touting it as fact.

Here are some famous films for whom “the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth” was a mere option, and a rather silly one at that.

13. Rudy (1993)

Rudy, the inspiring tale of a low-level, but beloved Notre Dame football player whose teammates threaten a walkout if their coach doesn’t let him suit up. Then, motivated by the crowd chanting for Rudy, they purposely defy their coach’s plans so the scrappy underdog can play. Once he does, the team carries him off the field like he just won the Super Bowl.

Thing is, virtually none of that happened. The jersey scene, in particular, was completely made up for dramatic purposes. Nobody had to threaten the coach to let Rudy play because the coach had decided he would himself. As for the crowd chanting Rudy’s name, they did that AFTER the game, because they liked Rudy and liked what they saw when he played. He did legitimately get carried off the field though, and thankfully not via stretcher, like how most football players get carried off.

TriStar Pictures

12. Argo (2012)

Ben Affleck’s movie about a CIA team filming a fake movie in Iran to rescue hostages completely ignored Canada’s significant contributions to the rescue mission. Interestingly, for a long time the United States gave Canada all the credit for the rescue, because they didn’t want the CIA’s involvement to become public knowledge. The movie, however, swings completely in the opposite direction by not only giving the US their due, but taking away that of their northern neighbors.

Also, virtually any scene where the plan hit complicated snags (like when the Americans got stopped in the airport because their bosses had cancelled their tickets) was made up, as the actual plan went super-smoothly. In addition, the scene where the CIA poured through tons of scripts, trying to find the perfect fake movie, was fake news. They knew, almost from the start, what movie they would fake-make, and it wasn’t called Argo.

Warner Bros.

11. The Pursuit of Happiness (2006)

The story of Chris Gardner’s rise from homeless salesman to millionaire stockbroker didn’t need much gussying up, but Hollywood did it anyway. While the real Chris Gardner was indeed a medical equipment salesman, he didn’t independently spend all his savings on portable bone density scanners like in the movie. He worked for an actual company, albeit one that didn’t pay him very much.

In addition, Gardner didn’t get an interview with Dean Witter Reynolds by solving a Rubik’s Cube, nor did he get arrested for parking tickets. In fact, he was actually arrested for domestic abuse, and the cops tacked on the unpaid-ticket charge after the fact. What’s more, the movie omits the period where Gardner’s girlfriend took their son away from him due to the possible illegitimacy of his finances. To hear the movie tell it, father and son were slumming it in bathrooms and railway stations from start to finish.

Columbia Pictures

10. A Beautiful Mind (2001)

If accuracy is your thing, there’s nothing beautiful about A Beautiful Mind. For one thing, while John Nash did suffer from schizophrenia and paranoia, he didn’t hallucinate entire people like in the film. Rather, he suffered from weird beliefs, like how anyone who wore a red tie was a Soviet spy. Moreover, Nash didn’t take any medication for his illness after 1970, whereas in the movie he mentions that he takes “new” medicine. Apparently, the movie stuck that in there to dissuade actual schizophrenics from discarding their medicine.

In addition, real-life Nash was a lot less pure than his movie form. In the film, he’s a faithful husband to his first love, Alicia. In reality, Nash almost certainly had covert affairs with men, definitely had an illegitimate son, and was abusive and domineering toward Alicia, whom he (or more accurately, his mental illness) regarded as his slave at the time.

Universal Pictures

9. Sully (2016)

The real-life story of Chesley “Sully” Sullenberger’s safely landing his damaged plane in the Hudson River was intense and dramatic, but also fairly basic. Banal stories about everyday heroism don’t fly in Hollywood, so literally everything about the Sully movie, aside from the plane landing, is 100% fiction.

Director Clint Eastwood needed a villain to make the movie work, so the filmmakers invented an evil traffic board who desperately wants to nail Sully for negligence. They claim Sully might’ve been drunk, that one of his engines actually had power, and that flight simulations showed he should’ve easily made it to the airport. Sully fights tirelessly to convince them he did all he could do and eventually, the board concludes the pilot did, in fact, do the right thing.

In real life, none of that happened. The traffic board almost immediately sided with Sully, as did everyone in the country who honored him.

Warner Bros.

8. The Blind Side (2009)

The Blind Side tells the story of Michael Oher, who went from homelessness to the NFL, thanks to his foster family teaching him about football and life. That, however, is Hollywood hogwash. In truth, he’d known how to play football since childhood, as he always had the size and speed to succeed in the game. His family’s love and support gave him the confidence and foundation needed to become an NFL pro (and Super Bowl champion), but they didn’t get him there by pointing out that football players defend each other just like families do.

The movie gets other facts wrong too. Oher didn’t immediately get accepted into Briarcrest like in the movie. Rather, he had to do some homeschooling beforehand to get his then-abysmal grades up to snuff. Plus, he actually stayed with several families after meeting the Tuohys, before they finally agreed to take him in.

Warner Bros.

7. Cinderella Man (2005)

Cinderella Man, the story of Depression-era boxer James Braddock’s rise from broke-and-broken ex-boxer to World Heavyweight Champion, is actually faithful to the real-life story, which is great. They majorly messed up one thing, however, which is not so great.

In the film, legendary boxer Max Baer isn’t just a champion: he’s a pure evil antagonist. He’s a rude, crude womanizer who killed two men during boxing matches, bragged about it, and implied he might kill Braddock too. This is 100% false, and was only inserted because Hollywood movies need bad guys. Apparently the Great Depression just wasn’t evil enough …

The real Max Baer was a good man and a true professional. While he did kill one man during a match, it was an accident, and he was completely repentant and devastated by it. He gave money to his victim’s family, and reportedly suffered from nightmares about the incident for the rest of his life.

Universal Pictures

6. Pain & Gain (2013)

Pain and Gain took the real story of bodybuilders getting into organized crime and spun it every which way, because apparently bodybuilders doing Mafia stuff just wasn’t interesting enough for Hollywood.

Many characters had little in common with their real-life counterparts, aside from their names. Mark Wahlberg’s character, Daniel Lugo, was portrayed as a simple, brutish thug, while the real Lugo was actually a cunning criminal who spearheaded a successful Medicare scam. The movie briefly mentions the scam in the beginning, but ignores it from there on in favor of making Lugo dumb for the sake of comedy.

Then there’s The Rock’s character, Paul Doyle, who never actually existed. Doyle is actually a composite of three people, all of whom were way scrawnier than Dwayne Johnson. It seems the film cast the People’s Champion not because he fit the role, but because he’s The Rock and his jacked physique markets itself.

Paramount Pictures

5. Jimi: All Is By My Side (2013)

This story of Jimi Hendrix’s rise to stardom is mostly accurate, despite not being authorized by the Hendrix estate (which explains why a Hendrix biopic features no actual Hendrix songs). On the other hand, it bafflingly portrays Jimi as a domestic abuser who beat his girlfriend, Kathy Etchingham, after seeing her talking with another man.

According to Etchingham, that 100% never happened, and Jimi was a sweet and funny guy who never laid a hand on her. So, did the filmmakers just invent a horrific abuse scene for the sake of misguided drama? Not exactly. The story seems to originate in a couple unauthorized biographies: Room Full of Mirrors and Jimi: An Intimate Biography, neither of which Etchingham was interviewed for. What’s more, the filmmakers behind All Is By My Side didn’t consult her either, because why talk to the real person when you can just pretend they’re a fictional character?

Darko Entertainment

4. Hidalgo (2004)

Hidalgo, the story of Frank Hopkins’s cross-country race through the desert with his eponymous horse, is actually faithful to its source material. Problem is, the source material is a pack of dirty lies.

The film is based on Hopkins’ own stories of his life. He claimed to be a teenage US Cavalry rider who spent 30 years in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show, before winning the grueling 3000-mile Ocean of Fire horse race that forms the centerpiece of the movie. However, a couple long-distance horse riders, Basha and CuChullaine O’Reilly, researched Hopkins’ life and discovered literally none of that was true. He was never in the Cavalry, never in the Wild West Show, and didn’t win the Ocean of Fire because that race never existed. He legitimately worked as a horse handler for the Ringling Brothers circus, so he did do SOMETHING in the equestrian field at least. Racing, however, was not it.

Buena Vista Pictures

3. Braveheart (1994)

Hollywood’s take on William Wallace’s rebellion against the British is almost entirely fiction. The real “Brave Heart” is actually Robert the Bruce, King of Scots – not Wallace. The Scots wore kilts in the film, when in reality they didn’t during that period. Primae noctis (feudal lords’ right to sleep with any woman they wished) was a major plot point, but there’s no evidence it ever existed. The movie suggests England had controlled Scotland for years, when in fact it only ruled for a year before Wallace rebelled. We could go on, but we’d be here forever.

Braveheart screenwriter Randall Wallace admits the poem he based the film on, Blind Harry, likely isn’t true but rationalized the whole thing by claiming, “I know that it spoke to my heart and that’s what matters to me.” What’s more, director and star Mel Gibson also admits the movie is probably fiction, but feels it was more interesting than what really happened, so he doesn’t much care.

Paramount Pictures

2. The Imitation Game (2013)

Hollywood got Alan Turing’s quest to crack the Germans’ Enigma Code during World War II almost completely wrong. For one, the Polish scientists assisted Turing mightily, by cracking early Enigma codes and assisting Turing in perfecting his code-breaking machine. The movie barely mentions this, however, preferring to give Turing all the credit.

The movie also invents a story where Turing learns one of the men on his team is a Soviet spy, but ends up covering for the spy, who threatens to reveal Turing’s homosexuality to the world. This is completely made-up, and damaging to Turing’s reputation since covering for a foreign spy is treason. The movie also tells us that Turing was arrested for homosexuality (a crime at the time) after being investigated for espionage. Not true: he reported a robbery, but was having an affair with the robber. Police uncovered the awkward truth, he confessed to homosexuality, and then was arrested.

1. Lawrence of Arabia (1962)

Lawrence of Arabia is a classic, but don’t let that fool you into thinking the film’s fact-checking was 100% on the up-and-up.

In the film the Arab soldiers — and Arabs in general — are portrayed as undisciplined and tribal. That made for a fine culture clash when paired with Brits like T.E. Lawrence, but in real life the soldiers were largely disciplined and well-trained, and the culture in general was educated and classy.

Lawrence himself seems far more important in the movie than he might’ve been in real life. By many accounts, he was actually just one of many intelligence officers working in Arabia. Thing is, the man was apparently very good at promoting himself, largely by way of his braggadocios memoir The Seven Pillars Of Wisdom, which Lawrence of Arabia was based on. As a result, he gets to look better in historical discussions than he probably has any right to.

Columbia Pictures